Saturday, May 23, 2020

My ancestor Turavur Narayana Sastri named in 21st century books & journal as 1915 Sanskrit transcriber of ancient Tapatisamvarana-dhvani & Subhadradhananjaya-dhvani (Vyangyavyakhya) Kerala drama commentaries related to Kutiyattam

Last updated on 25th May 2020

In K.G. Paulose's book, Vyaṅgyavyākhyā: The Aesthetics of Dhvani in Theatre published in 2013, my great-grandfather Turavur (Thuravoor) Narayana Sastri (TNS) has been mentioned as 1915 Sanskrit transcriber from Malayalam palm leaf manuscripts of originally 9th/10th century possibly, commentaries (dhvanis) - Tapatīsaṃvaraṇa-dhvani and Subhadrādhanañjaya-dhvani - on two dramas - Tapatīsaṃvaraṇa and Subhadrādhanañjaya - of same time period, all of which were created in ancient Kerala. Note that the plot of both the two dramas (not commentaries/dhvanis) are said to be taken from associated stories in the Mahabharata epic. There seems to be just one mention of TNS name in Dr. Paulose's above book.

This reference to TNS has been, in turn, referenced by an article by Christophe Vielle in 2017 Cracow Indological Studies, Theatrical and Ritual Boundaries in South Asia journal, and two seemingly similar articles by Manu V. Devadevan in 2019 book titled, Two Masterpieces of Kutiyattam : Mantrankam and Anguliyankam, edited by David Shulman and Heike Oberlin, and book authored by Manu V. Devadevan titled, The ‘Early Medieval’ Origins of India, published in 2020. All these three articles mention the name: Turavur Narayana Sastri.

Hmm. This is a happy result of my rather intense Internet based search work on TNS, over the past few weeks. I had not anticipated 21st century books and a journal referring to my great-grandfather by name, even if the reference is limited (typically only once) and as a Sanskrit transcriber. I am really glad to see TNS name in these 21st century books! [For more details about TNS please visit my post: My great-grandfather Thuravoor Narayana Sasthrigal, noted Sanskrit scholar in grammar and poetry, and principal of Govt. Sanskrit College, Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum) from 1909-1911, https://ravisiyer.blogspot.com/2018/12/my-great-grandfather-thuravoor-narayana.html.]

The sections below give the details of the references to TNS in these books and a journal.

K.G. Paulose book: Vyaṅgyavyākhyā: The Aesthetics of Dhvani in Theatre

From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K._G._Paulose, "K. G. Paulose is a Sanskrit scholar specialized in the dramaturgy of the Natya Shastra and Kooditaatam." He was born in 1946 and currently seems to be editor in charge of publication division of Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakal.

From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koodiyattam, "Koodiyattam, also transliterated as kutiyattam, is a traditional performing art form in the state of Kerala, India. It is a combination of ancient Sanskrit theatre with elements of koothu, an ancient performing art from the Sangam era. It is officially recognised by UNESCO as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity."

K.G. Paulose authored the book titled "Vyaṅgyavyākhyā: The Aesthetics of Dhvani in Theatre", published by Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan and D.K. Printworld in 2013, https://books.google.co.in/books?id=LzCNzSTekCEC, https://www.amazon.in/Vyangyavyakhya-Aesthetics-K-G-Paulose/dp/8124606994.

This book refers to my great-grandfather Turavur (Thuravoor) Narayana Sastri (referred to as TNS hereafter). On page 67 of the book (as per Google Books), we have the following paragraph:
The only Ms available to us of these text is the one owned by Kailasapurathu Govinda Pisharoti in the palace library (No. 67) in Thiruvananthapuram. This palm-leaf Ms, in early Malayalam script is very old and is worn-out in many places. Turavur Narayana Sastri, an eminent traditional scholar of the last century transcribed this in paper in Devanāgari script for the Oriental Manuscript Library Thiruvanantapuram in 1915 CE (ME 1090).
--- end paragraph from Paulose book ---

Given below are two pics from Google Books search related to the above.

[To open pic in larger resolution, right-click on pic followed by open link (NOT image) in new tab/window. In new tab/window you may have to click on pic to zoom in.]



The preview in Google Books being very limited and me not having access to the above book of K.G. Paulose, limited the info. I could get on TNS from the book to the above. I am considering whether I should purchase K.G. Paulose's book (available only in hardcover for Rs.1088 on above Amazon India link). I think if the book contains pictures of Sanskrit text transcribed by TNS on paper OR even has typed Sanskrit text copied from Sanskrit text transcribed/translated by TNS on paper, then it will certainly be worth buying and treasuring as a family heirloom, for me and perhaps other descendants of TNS, as we currently are not able to find any document of TNS in the family.  As the grandchildren of TNS (my parents' generation) migrated to Bombay/Mumbai from Kerala, and also faced financial challenges, and later as their children (my generation) moved residence, TNS related written material/records/documentation has sadly disappeared from the family. I have captured the oral information about TNS that was available/orally handed down in the family, when I did some digging up on the matter over the past few years, in posts on this blog (see https://ravisiyer.blogspot.com/2018/12/my-great-grandfather-thuravoor-narayana.html and links mentioned in it).

Note that later on in this post, we see that Christophe Vielle writes that this K.G. Paulose book has the complete text of what seems to be the Sanskrit transcript written by TNS! If that is the case (if my understanding of Vielle's words is right), then I will surely buy the hardcover book!

The Hindu article: Art of theatre, https://www.thehindu.com/features/friday-review/theatre/art-of-theatre/article5170444.ece, 26th Sept. 2013, updated on 10th Oct. 2013, has the sub-title: "K.G. Paulose explains why Vyangyavyakhya: The Aesthetics of Dhvani in Theatre, a book on theatre edited by him, is important to understand theatre forms of Kerala." The article also has a pic of Paulose with the book.

The reference to TNS in above mentioned K.G. Paulose book has been picked up by other researchers and mentioned in their works with some of that being accessible on the Internet! That provides additional background info.

Review of K.G. Paulose book by  Christophe Vielle in 2017 Cracow Indological Studies, Theatrical and Ritual Boundaries in South Asia journal

In page 142 (pdf page 183) of Cracow Indological Studies, Theatrical and Ritual Boundaries in South Asia. Part I, VOL. XIX, No. 1, Edited by Elisa Ganser and Ewa Dębicka-Borek, KRAKÓW 2017, https://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/150340/1/29bddf3eca7aa95cc523668afca0b607.pdf, there is a reference to TNS as Turavur Narayana Sastri. [Note that Cracow is in Poland.]

This reference comes in the chapter/article titled, "The So-called Vyaṅgyavyākhyā: Selected Remarks for Reading It Philologically—A Review of K. G. Paulose (ed.).Vyaṅgyavyākhyā: The Aesthetics of Dhvani in Theatre. pp. xvi + 546. New Delhi: Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan–D.K. Printworld. 2013.—By Christophe Vielle (Oriental Institute, Louvain-la-Neuve)."

In the above mentioned chapter, Vielle refers to two distinct commentaries (vyakhyas) - Tapatīsaṃvaraṇa-dhvani and Subhadrādhanañjaya-dhvani - by an unnamed Brahmin Pandit (scholar) on the plays Tapatīsaṃvaraṇa and Subhadrādhanañjaya composed by the Kerala king and dramatist Kulasekara, with both the king and Pandit being contemporaries (perhaps in 9th or 10th century CE).

First let us understand what are the above two plays, before we proceed to the commentaries (vyakhyas) on them.

1) Tapathisamvaranam of Kulashekharavarma (King of Mahodayapura, from dynasty of rulers of ancient Kerala, 9th/10th CE perhaps),  https://archive.org/stream/Trivandrum_Sanskrit_Series_TSS/TSS-011_Tapathisamvaranam_of_Kulasekharavarma_-_TG_Sastri_1911 [published in 1911]

From the preface by T. Ganapati Sastri (Editor of Trivandrum Sanskrit Series, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T._Ganapati_Sastri): "The play Tapatisamvarana derives its name from Tapati and Samvarana, the heroine and the hero. The plot of the play is taken from the story of Samvarana, the father of Kuru and husband of Tapati described in chapters 171-173 of the Adiparva of the Mahabharata. The edition of the drama is based on four manuscripts 2 or 3 centuries old obtained from the Palace Library."

2) Subhadradhananjayam of Kulashekharavarma (King of Mahodayapura, from dynasty of rulers of ancient Kerala, 9th/10th CE perhaps), https://archive.org/stream/Trivandrum_Sanskrit_Series_TSS/TSS-013_Subhadradhananjayam_-_TG_Sastri_1912 [published in 1912]

From the preface by T. Ganapati Sastri: "The book which is now published as its name correctly indicates, narrates in dramatical form, the romance of Subhadra and Dhananjaya described in the celebrated epic, the Mahabharata".

Now let us move back to Vielle's article.

Vielle refers to above mentioned Dr. K.G. Paulose's book, Vyaṅgyavyākhyā: The Aesthetics of Dhvani in Theatre, published in 2013, which, Vielle states, for the first time provides the complete text of both commentaries which have been "copied from the codex T.281 of the Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library of the University of Kerala". Vielle then writes, "This devanāgarī transcript on paper was made by a pandit of the Department for the publication of Sanskrit manuscripts/Curator’s Office Library, Trivandrum, in 1915 (date given by Paulose p. 67, supposedly from the transcriber-notice usually found at the end of such codices)."

Note that the text in Paulose's book are the commentaries (dhvanis/vyakhas) on the plays and not the plays themselves.

Vielle writes, "It is the T.281 transcription that has combined the two texts, which were separate in the original manuscripts, and presented them with a common title (dhanañjayasaṃvaraṇadhvaniḥ written on the first page of the transcript reproduced by Paulose p. 68), as if they were forming a single work. The transcriber (viz. the ­pandit Turavur Narayana Sastri according to Paulose) would have been encouraged to do so following the use of the singular Vyaṅgyavyākhyā as a common title, created by T. Gaṇapati Śāstrī to designate both works in the introduction to his edition of the Tapatīsaṃvaraṇa published in 1911 (Trivandrum Sanskrit Series no. 11)." [Ravi: This seems to be the same Tapatisamvarana book whose archive.org link has been provided earlier in this post.]

From the above, we can understand that TNS transcribed the palm leaf Malayalam script version of the two commentaries (vyakhyas/dhvanis), to paper Sanskrit version, and he combined the two commentaries into one single vyakhya/dhvani. But did this transcription also involve translation from Malayalam into Sanskrit? In which case, why is TNS referred to as transcriber and NOT translator? Note that https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcription_(linguistics) states, "Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form. The source can either be utterances (speech or sign language) or preexisting text in another writing system. Transcription should not be confused with translation, which means representing the meaning of a source-language text in a target language (e.g. Los Angeles into City of Angels) or with transliteration which means representing the spelling of a text from one script to another."

But what exactly is dhvani in this context? An extract from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anandavardhana is given below

Ānandavardhana (c. 820–890 CE) was the author of Dhvanyāloka, or A Light on Suggestion (dhvani), a work articulating the philosophy of "aesthetic suggestion" (dhvani, vyañjanā). The philosopher Abhinavagupta (c. 950 – 1016 CE) wrote an important commentary on it, the Locana, or The Eye.

Ānandavardhana is credited with creating the dhvani theory. He wrote that dhvani (meaning sound, or resonance) is the "soul" or "essence" (ātman) of poetry (kavya)."[1] "When the poet writes," said Ānandavardhana, "he creates a resonant field of emotions." To understand the poetry, the reader or hearer must be on the same "wavelength." The method requires sensitivity on the parts of the writer and the reader.[1] The complete Dhvanyāloka together with Abhinavagupta's commentary on it has been translated into English by the eminent Sanskritist Daniel H.H. Ingalls and his collaborators.[2]

[References:
1. Premnath, Devadasan; Foskett (Ed.), Mary; Kuan (Ed.), Kah-Jin (15 November 2006), Ways of Being, Ways of Reading: Asian American Biblical Interpretation, Chalice Press, p. 11, ISBN 978-0-8272-4254-8
2. Anandavardhana; Abhinavagupta; Daniel H.H. Ingalls; J.M. Masson; M.V.Patwardhan, The Dhvanyaloka of Ānandavardhana with the Locana of Abhinavagupta, Harvard Oriental Series]

--- end extract from wikipedia ---

This dhvani (aesthetic resonance/suggestion) was applied to the two dramas Tapatīsaṃvaraṇa and Subhadrādhanañjaya in the commentary works Tapatīsaṃvaraṇa-dhvani and Subhadrādhanañjaya-dhvani, with the dramas and the dhvanis dated by some scholars as 9th/10th century CE.

Note that TNS seems to be the same as Bhatta Narayana Sastri referred to in V. Raghavan's Chapter 12 Sanskrit Literature in 1959 (2nd) edition of CONTEMPORARY INDIAN LITERATURE - A SYMPOSIUM published by Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi,
https://sanskritdocuments.org/articles/SanskritLiteratureVRaghavan1959FromContemporaryIndianLiterature.pdf.

From page 7 of above pdf document:
"As the traditional form of Sanskrit learning has been continuing, Pandits steeped in the older tradition continue to compose long and short poems, hymns, plays, religious works, commentaries and Sastraic and other technical treatises in the old style. We have had recently in the South writers like Bhatta Sri Narayana Sastri who wrote ninety-three plays, Radhamangalam Narayana Sastri, author of hundred and eight works,(.) and Kavyakantham Ganapati Sastri who was equally prolific; and there have been similar writers in other centres of learning."

For more on why I think Bhatta Narayana Sastri mentioned above refers to TNS, please visit the section titled, "Is Bhatta Sri Narayana Sastri same as Thuravoor Narayana Sastrigal?" in my post: https://ravisiyer.blogspot.com/2020/05/other-names-of-my-ancestor-thuravoor.html.

Presuming that TNS is indeed Bhatta Narayana Sastri referred above, then TNS, as a Sanskrit playwright or dramatist, would himself have had a keen understanding of drama (play), and so would have been able to well appreciate the above mentioned commentaries (vyakhyas/dhvanis) on the two dramas: Tapatīsaṃvaraṇa and Subhadrādhanañjaya.

Vielle writes, "Hence, even if the title Vyaṅgyavyākhyā (henceforth VV) is artificial, the way according to which the two texts have been put together by the ‘pre-editor’/transcriber is not at all meaningless". [Ravi: The combined dhvani text in Sanskrit was named, as mentioned earlier, dhanañjayasaṃvaraṇadhvaniḥ, probably by TNS. This is also referred to as Vyaṅgyavyākhyā (name used by T. Ganapati Sastri), and is now better known with this Vyaṅgyavyākhyā name.]

Kutiyattam article by Manu V. Devadevan in 2019 and 2020 books

The following books have similar articles by Manu V. Devadevan with one book's article titled: Knowing and Being: Kutiyattam and Its Semantic Universe.

1) Two Masterpieces of Kutiyattam : Mantrankam and Anguliyankam
Edited by David Shulman and Heike Oberlin
published by Oxford University Press, 11th September 2019.
https://global.oup.com/academic/product/two-masterpieces-of-kutiyattam-9780199483594

2) The ‘Early Medieval’ Origins of India
By Manu V. Devadevan
Cambridge University Press, published in May 2020
https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/early-medieval-origins-of-india/8E935BD91FEECD81CD48537B5A678BC7#

A draft version of the article is available here (full text is available): https://www.academia.edu/29536350/Knowing_and_Being_-_Ku_t_iya_t_t_am_and_Its_Semantic_Universe.pdf.

Both the articles/chapters in above books refer (in reference/notes section of a page), to Dhanañjayasamvaranadhvanih (also called Vyangyavyakhya), being transcribed in Sanskrit by TNS from Malayalam palm leaf manuscript in 2015.
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Notes

1. Browsed the net for Christophe Vielle and found that he is a Professor at "UCLouvain - Institut orientaliste" in Belgium, http://www.cbs.ugent.be/node/553. Hmm. Interesting!

I found a youtube video of Dr. Vielle inaugurating a November 2018 conference on science and technology in Sanskrit organized by Research Forum Sahitya and Department of Sanskrit Sahitya in Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady, Kerala: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kAgqCRCS6cU, 12 min. 21 secs.

2. https://uni-tuebingen.de/en/faculties/faculty-of-humanities/departments/aoi/indology-and-comparative-religion/mitarbeiter/heike-oberlin-moser/ is the faculty page for Prof. Heike Oberlin (Moser) from "Institute for Indology and Comparative Religion", Tübingen University, Germany. She has published an online book in 2011 titled, "Bibliography of Kūṭiyāṭṭam" which can be viewed & downloaded from  https://www.academia.edu/26631385/Bibliography_of_K%C5%AB%E1%B9%ADiy%C4%81%E1%B9%AD%E1%B9%ADam.

Her above faculty page states, "From 1995 to 2001 she studied and performed Kūṭiyāṭṭam and Naṅṅyār-Kūttu with P.N. Girija and Painkulam Rama Chakyar at Kerala Kalamandalam in India. Since then she is also involved in studying and teaching the Malayalam language."

3. Manu V. Devadevan is faculty in the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, IIT Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India. More about him can be seen on his faculty page: http://faculty.iitmandi.ac.in/~manu/.
================================

In response to a comment on my Facebook post, https://www.facebook.com/ravi.s.iyer.7/posts/2851089081774317, associated with this blog post, that my family are educated and scholarly, I wrote:
Well, I think it is only my great-grandfather TNS who, in the immediate past generations of my family, was a scholar. Most others (males usually as in my parents' generation and earlier generations about whom we have some idea, females played more of a home maker and family nurturing role with one clear exception of a lady who was a school teacher) were educated either in traditional Hindu Vedic education systems or later in modern Indian education systems, but I think had to focus on earning a livelihood in non-scholarly occupations, to maintain their families. Note that some may have been teachers but not scholars who wrote/composed scholarly articles, books, plays and/or poems. And so TNS stands out as the only ancestor of my family that I (or our larger family) know of, as far as I know, as having been a scholar with some compositions to his credit but about which not much is known now in the family, due to any family records about his works that may have been there, having been lost.
----

[I thank Wikipedia, publishers and authors of Vyangyavyakhya, Cracow Indological Studies and CONTEMPORARY INDIAN LITERATURE - A SYMPOSIUM, and have presumed that they will not have any objections to me sharing the above extract(s) from their website (small extracts from Vyangyavyakhya, Cracow Indological Studies and CONTEMPORARY INDIAN LITERATURE - A SYMPOSIUM) on this post which is freely viewable by all, and does not have any financial profit motive whatsoever.]

Monday, May 18, 2020

Other names of my ancestor Thuravoor Narayana Sastrigal like R. Narayana Sastri, Bhatta Sri Narayana Sastri and Turavur Narayana Sastri, and books mentioning them

Last updated on 25th May 2020

This post is split into a summary section first followed by a details section. Some readers may want to read only the summary and just browse through the details or skip it.

Summary

Over the past few days I have done a lot of intensive Internet based search mainly using Google search and Google Books search on other names of Thuravoor Narayana Sastrigal, my great-grandfather [For more details about him please visit my post: https://ravisiyer.blogspot.com/2018/12/my-great-grandfather-thuravoor-narayana.html]. The findings of this work are given below.

1) Bhatta Sri Narayana Sastri mentioned in 1959 Sahitya Akademi Contemporary Indian Literature Symposium 2nd Ed., in Sanskrit literature chapter by V. Raghavan, seems to be Thuravoor Narayana Sastrigal (TNS).

2) A.R. Rajaraja Varma in his Laghu Paniniyam preface has referred to TNS using the name "Brahmasri R Narayana Sastriar". The R in the name may be Ramachandran as it is a name handed down to male descendants in the family.

3) In Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World, Volume 1 By Gaṅgā Rām Garg, first published 1992, TNS seems to be referred to as "Bhatta Sri Narayana Sastri (1860-1911), author of 92 dramas".

4) Book on A.R. Rajaraja Varma titled, "Ē. Ār. Rājarājavarmma - Volume 3" with author listed as "M. Bhagirathy Amma Thampuran", 1963 as publication date possibly, with National Bookstall (Nāṣanal Bukkst̲āḷ) as the distributor or publisher (vitaraṇaṃ) seems to have picture of group including R. Narayana Sastrigal (TNS) on page 192. The pic caption seems to be: "Sitting Left to Right : A. Krishna Pisharati, T. Raman Nambisan, R. Narayana Sastrigal, A. R. Rajaraja Varma, C, N, A. Ramayya Sastri, K. Parameswaran Pillai."

5) Swami Swayamprakasa Brahmendra Saraswathi (born 1871 in Tamil Nadu) studied Sanskrit under Sri Narayana Sastri of Trivandrum (Thiruvanantapuram) [TNS]. Narayana Sastri is referred to as an erudite scholar, an expert in Sanskrit, Veda sastra & advaitha philosophy, expert in some other  languages, good orator, and an  editor of  magazine called "brahmavidya" in which  he wrote  about  sanadhana dharma. TNS is also said to have taught (Sanskrit and sastras) to young Krishna moorthy who later became Swami Swayamprakasa Brahmendra Saraswathi, very well.

6) TNS is referred to as Turavur Narayana Sastri in the following books:
  • KERALA VARMA AND HIS WORKS by Dr.Poovattoor Ramakrishna Pillai
  • The ‘Early Medieval’ Origins of India By Manu V. Devadevan, Cambridge University Press, May 2020 [Similar content in article by same Manu V. Devadevan in the book: Two Masterpieces of Kutiyattam, Mantrankam and Anguliyankam, Edited by David Shulman and Heike Oberlin, published by Oxford University Press, 11th September 2019.]
  • Glimpses of Sanskrit Research: A Collection of Research Papers in Sanskrit and English
7) TNS is NOT the following persons and should NOT be confused with them
  • R. Narayana Sastrigal from Radhamangalam, Prof. of Vyakarana in Trivadi college (possibly in Tamil Nadu), and author of Nagesasaya Nirnaya Part I, published in 1913.
  • Bhattasri Narayana Sastri from Tamil Nadu possibly who is said to have authored a "Sankara Vijaya" book under name of Madhava. This is mentioned in the book: Age of Sankara by T.S. Narayana Sastry, first published in 1916.
  • Above mentioned T.S. Narayana Sastry (1869-1918), http://worldcat.org/identities/lccn-n79128593/, [Full name seems to be Tandalam Sankara Narayan Sastry or Sastri]
  • Narayana Sastri Khiste, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office (Varanasi), seems to have been active in publications in early 1900s.
  • Narayana Bhatta is how some documents & books refer to the very famous Kerala Sanskrit scholar, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathri (1560 - 1646/1666).
  • Narayana Pandita in Kerala Sanskrit scholar context typically refers to Narayana Panditacharya (14th century -1300s - most probably), biographer of Madhavacharya. 
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Details

[The details section is mostly a quick and rough log where I jotted down stuff as I was doing Internet search and following up on search results.]

Bhatta Sri Narayana Sastri (Thuravoor Narayana Sastrigal?) mentioned in 1959 Sahitya Akademi Contemporary Indian Literature Symposium 2nd Ed., in Sanskrit literature chapter by V. Raghavan

The title and key information about the vital book or collection of essays on contemporary Indian literature (in 1950s) that has references to Bhatta Sri Narayana Sastri in the chapter dealing with Sanskrit literature, is given below.

CONTEMPORARY INDIAN LITERATURE

A SYMPOSIUM

Second Edition, Revised & Enlarged

SAHITYA AKADEMI

NEW DELHI

First Published, January 1957
Second Edition, April 1959

PUBLISHED ON BEHALF OF THE SAHITYA AKADEMI BY THE DIRECTOR, THE PUBLICATIONS DIVISION, MINISTRY OF INFORMATION AND BROADCASTING, DELHI-8

http://dspace.wbpublibnet.gov.in:8080/xmlui/handle/10689/12910 shows the main page for this symposium book.

http://dspace.wbpublibnet.gov.in:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10689/12910/Title%20Page.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y shows the Title page (scanned document).

The entry for Chapter 12 (which has references to Bhatta Sri Narayana Sastri) in the main page is as follows:
Name:Chapter 12_201-25 ...
Size:4.337Mb
Format:PDF
Description:SANSKRIT LITERATURE
---

and the link to open it is: http://dspace.wbpublibnet.gov.in:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10689/12910/Chapter%2012_201-252p.pdf?sequence=15&isAllowed=y (scanned document)

This seems to be Chaper 12 Sanskrit Literature by V. Raghavan.

https://sanskritdocuments.org/articles/SanskritLiteratureVRaghavan1959FromContemporaryIndianLiterature.pdf seems to searchable text of this same Chapter 12 document.

--------

V. Raghavan seems to be this person, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V._Raghavan - "Venkataraman Raghavan (1908–1979) was a Sanskrit scholar and musicologist. He was the recipient of numerous awards, including the Padma Bhushan and the Sahitya Akademi Award for Sanskrit, and authored over 120 books and 1200 articles.[1]" [Ref 1: Kapila Vatsyayan wants scholars to emulate Dr. Raghavan, https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-tamilnadu/Kapila-Vatsyayan-wants-scholars-to-emulate-Dr.-Raghavan/article15288476.ece, 24th Aug. 2008.]

The wiki additionally states, "After a brief Superintendship of the Sarasvati Mahal Manuscript Library, joined the research department of his Alma Mater, Madras University where from the position of a Research Scholar, he rose to that of Professor and was Head of the Department of Sanskrit till 1968.[6]" [Ref 6:  "Dr.V.Raghavan". www.drvraghavancentre.com. Retrieved 7 April 2017.]

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http://dspace.wbpublibnet.gov.in:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10689/12910/Index.pdf?sequence=21&isAllowed=y seems to be the Index page of above symposium book.

Page 12 has the entry "Narayana Sastri, Bhatta Sri 207, 234". A previous entry is: "Narayana Sastri, 228".

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From Chapter 12 Sanskrit Literature by V. Raghavan, https://sanskritdocuments.org/articles/SanskritLiteratureVRaghavan1959FromContemporaryIndianLiterature.pdf

From page 7:
"As the traditional form of Sanskrit learning has been continuing, Pandits steeped in the older tradition continue to compose long and short poems, hymns, plays, religious works, commentaries and Sastraic and other technical treatises in the old style. We have had recently in the South writers like Bhatta Sri Narayana Sastri who wrote ninety-three plays, Radhamangalam Narayana Sastri, author of hundred and eight works,(.) and Kavyakantham Ganapati Sastri who was equally prolific; and there have been similar writers in other centres of learning."

Page 28: "Simanlini (VII) by Narayana Sastri"

Page 34: "Of the serious drama, the traditional type on old themes has been produced Jn (in) large numbers and it is enough to indicate here that there have been writers like Bhattasri Narayana Sastri who had written ninety-three plays and that to this day such plays arc (are) being regularly composed."
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===============================================


Is Bhatta Sri Narayana Sastri same as Thuravoor Narayana Sastrigal?

In his book Laghu Paniniyam, at the end of the Preface on page 3 of the book, Prof. A.R. Rajaraja Varma says, "It only remains to me to acknowledge with much gratitude the constant assistance encouragement and advice I have received from my revered uncle and preceptor, M R. Ry Kerala Varma Avl. C.S.I., the doyen of Sanskrit scholarship in South India, and from my fellow-student, former colleague and friend, Brahmasri R Narayana Sastriar, the present head of the local Sanskrit College".

It is 'signed' (name of author is printed) "A. R. Rajaraja Varma" with date and place as "TRIVANDRUM, 3rd August 1911". [For more details see my post: My great-grandfather Thuravoor Narayana Sasthrigal, noted Sanskrit scholar in grammar and poetry, and principal of Govt. Sanskrit College, Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum) from 1909-1911, https://ravisiyer.blogspot.com/2018/12/my-great-grandfather-thuravoor-narayana.html .]

There is no doubt that the Brahmasri R Narayana Sastriar mentioned above is Thuravoor Narayana Sastrigal, as the latter was principal of Trivandrum Sanskrit College in 1911, and was fellow-student and former colleague of Prof. A.R. Rajaraja Varma (see above mentioned blog post for details).

But how about the initial R and not T? Well, either it could be a typo OR the R could stand for Ramachandran which name has been handed down to male descendants as is the naming tradition in our family. Thuravoor is the name of the place he hailed from in Kerala. So perhaps the full name would have been Thuravoor Ramachandran Narayana. The suffix Sastri or Sastriar / Sastrigal is a honorific one for Hindu scriptural knowledge masters.

How about Brahmasri? That is a honorific prefix which Prof. A.R.Rajaraja Varma seems to have felt he should use for Narayana Sastri.

Narayana Sastri seems to be a simple form of the name Brahmasri R Narayana Sastriar, and similarly Narayana Sastri is a simple form of the name Thuravoor Narayana Sastrigal.

http://61.0.248.125/dcekerala/sktpalayam/history-of-the-college/ gives the history of H.H.Maharajas Govt.Sanskrit college. It states, "Sri A. R Raja Raja Varma was appointed the First Principal of the institution by Sri Mulam Tirunal Rama Varma, Mahamahopadyaya Dr. T. Ganapathi Sastri succeeded him as Principal in 1899. On Sri Sastri’s retirement, Sri Thuravoor Narayana Sasthrigal, the celebrated scholar in Sanskrit grammar, became the Principal of the institution. When Sri Narayan Sastri left service Sri Krishna Sastrigal became the Principal."

So the history of the Govt. Sanskrit college document itself refers to Thuravoor Narayana Sasthrigal additionally as Sri Narayana Sastri!

Note that Sri is a common honorofic like Mr. in English.

How about Bhatta in the name: Bhatta Sri Narayana Sastri?

In the book: Kerala History and its Makers By A. Sreedhara Menon, first published March 1987, on page 94, https://books.google.co.in/books?id=wnAjqjhc1VcC&pg=PA94&lpg=PA94 , it is written: "It has been the practice in ancient Kerala to confer the title Bhatta on those learned Brahmins who engaged themselves in indepth studies spread over a period of twelve years in any of the following branches of knowledge, viz., Prabhakara Mimamsa, Bhatta Mimamsa, Vedanta and Vyakarana. The title was even applied to their descendents as a matter of hereditary honour."

So it is quite probable that Narayana Sastri name, after application of honorofics, became Bhatta Sri Narayana Sastri.

Now let us see an extract from: Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World, Volume 1 By Gaṅgā Rām Garg, first published 1992

[Google Books link: https://books.google.co.in/books?id=w9pmo51lRnYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=inauthor:%22Ga%E1%B9%85g%C4%81+R%C4%81m+Garg%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi9xebO5aHfAhVPX30KHd8LABYQ6AEIKjAA]

Page 59 of the above book mentions, "Those who wrote in the traditional style are: Acyutaraya Modak (fl. early 19th cent.), author of some 30 works, Mudumbai Venkatrama Narasimhacarya (1842-1928), author of 114 works, Keralavarma Valiya Koil Tampuran (1845-1915), called 'Kerala Kalidasa', who composed 37 works, Bhatta Sri Narayana Sastri (1860-1911), author of 92 dramas, Medhasri Narayana Sastri (1882-1932), author of 108 works, which included 24 plays, ...".

The lifetime period given of 1860 to 1911 seems to fit in well with possible lifetime of Thuravoor Narayana Sastrigal who was principal of Trivandrum Sanskrit College from 1909 to 1911. Perhaps he passed away in 1911. As he was a fellow-student of Prof. A.R. Rajaraja Varma, his birth year would have been close to Rajaraja Varma who was born in 1863, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A._R._Raja_Raja_Varma. So it is very probable that Thuravoor Narayana Sastri was born in 1860.

Given this background, I think it is highly probable that the Bhatta Sri Narayana Sastri (1860-1911) reference in Ganga Ram Garg's book is to Thuravoor Narayana Sastrigal. Further, it is highly probable that V. Raghavan in his above mentioned Chapter 12 Sanskrit Literature in Contemporary Indian Literature Symposium book, has used the name Bhatta Sri Narayana Sastri (without birth & death years) to refer to this same Thuravoor Narayana Sastrigal.
-------------

Book on A.R. Rajaraja Varma by Bhagirathy Amma Thampuran seems to have picture of group including R. Narayana Sastrigal (TNS)

As mentioned earlier in this post, in the Preface of his book Laghu Paniniyam, the author A.R. Rajaraja Varma has referred to Thuravoor Narayana Sastrigal as "Brahmasri R Narayana Sastriar". So R. Narayana Sastri (or Sastrigal or Sastriar) is another way in which Thuravoor Narayana Sastri (or Sastrigal or Sastriar) was referred to.

I searched on the Internet for R. Narayana Sastrigal and got this Google Books link:
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=X4ARAQAAIAAJ&q=R.+Narayana+Sastrigal&dq=R.+Narayana+Sastrigal&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjdh4KJiLTpAhWCzjgGHZ4JCusQ6AEIVjAG

The Google result also shows this info. along with above link:
Sitting Left to Right : A. Krishna Pisharati, T. Raman Nambisan, R. Narayana Sastrigal, A. R. Rajaraja Varma, C, N, A. Ramayya Sastri, K. Parameswaran Pillai. അതെല്ലാം ഇന്നലെ നടന്ന കായ്യങ്ങൾപോലെയാണു് എനിക്ക് ...
M. Bhagirathy Amma Thampuran - 1963 - ‎Snippet view - ‎More editions

This seems to refer to picture in the book of a group including A.R. Rajaraja Varma (on whom the book is written) and R. Narayana Sastrigal (TNS)!

Visiting the link, leads to a info. about book titled: "Ē. Ār. Rājarājavarmma - Volume 3". The author is listed as "M. Bhagirathy Amma Thampuran". 1963 seems to mentioned as the publication date, with National Bookstall (Nāṣanal Bukkst̲āḷ) as the distributor or publisher (vitaraṇaṃ).

The page further states, "1 page matching R. Narayana Sastrigal in this book" and shows a picture of small part of page 192. Unfortunately the picture only shows some text (perhaps caption of picture) with "a Sastrigal" visible in it. I think this must be part of scanned image of page 192 of this book.

The lower part of the page states:
"Original from the University of California
Digitized 2 Jun 2009"

I checked out the other "editions" of the book on Google Books. https://books.google.co.in/books?q=editions:LCCNsa64003929&id=X4ARAQAAIAAJ lists all "editions".
Actually, they are a mix of different volumes (1 to 3), and perhaps different editions/re-prints.

But one additional info. that is clearly provided by above list is that M. Raghava Varma Raja is a co-author of the book. In fact, the Volume 3 link given above has a front page pic which when magnified shows that there are two authors though the names are not clearly visible. But they seem to match the names of M. Bhagirathy Amma Thampuran and M. Raghava Varma Raja.

I searched for downloadable PDF or other format ebook of this book but did not get suitable results.

But it seems that the physical book copy is available at some libraries. Details are given below:

1) In Connemara Public Library at Egmore in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

A.R.Raja Raja Varma-III
by BHAGIRATHY AMMA THAMPURAN(M) &RAGHAVA VARMA RAJA (M)

http://central.tnopac.gov.in/cgi-bin/koha/opac-detail.pl?biblionumber=20122

2) https://www.worldcat.org/title/e-ar-rajarajavarmma/oclc/19759265 lists many USA libraries with the book (volume(s)).

3) USA Library of Congress entry for the book: http://id.loc.gov/resources/works/7515125.html

---------------
Full text of "Whos Who Of Indian Writers", Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, First published 1961 [...The compilation of the volume was taken in hand in October
1955. It was then decided to include only such writers as were
living at the time of the inauguration of the Sahitya Akademi, that
is, on 12 March 1954....]
https://archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.278465/2015.278465.Whos-Who_djvu.txt has the following:

Bhagirathi Amma Thampuran, M. (Smt.);
b. 23.4.1890, Mavelikara; mt. Malayalam;
Katha Kusumanjali (stories) 1942; Vana-
vasa Smaranakal (reminiscences) 1942;
Sabarigirisa Stavam (poem) 1948; Kana-
kam (drama) 1951; A.- R. Raja Raja
Varma, 1953; tr. Indiayile Mahan-
mar, 1953 (both biographies); Add.
Sarada Mandiram, Mavelikara, Kerala
State
--------------------------

-----------

http://www.universityofcalicut.info/SDE/SM_VI_sem_BA_Sanskrit_General_Essay.pdf states, "Later he (A.R. Rajaraja Varma) passed the examination .He married Mahaprabha Swati Tirunal Princess of Mavelikkara. M.Bhagirathi Thampuratti was the daughter and the son, Raghavavarma thampuran ." So the book mentioned above (Ē. Ār. Rājarājavarmma) seems to be authored by his son & daughter and published in 1963.

K.M. George's book on ARRV (in 1978), http://sahitya-akademi.gov.in/publications/pdf/a-r-rajaraja-varma_english.pdf acknowledges help from "Prof. R. Raghava Varma, son of A.R. Rajaraja Varma for clearing certain doubts regarding domestic and literary matters."
==========================================

TNS seems to have been Sanskrit teacher in Tiruvananthapuram of young lad Krishnamoorthy who later became Swami Swayamprakasa Brahmendra Saraswathi

https://sites.google.com/site/orgdatta/paramaguru

An extract: His Holiness SWAMI SWAYAMPRAKASA BRAHMENDRA SARASWATHI

Swami Swayamprakasa Brahmendra born as Krishnamoorthy to Ramaswami Sastrigal, a pious Vedic scholar and a poor but respectable Brahmin, and Janaki, a woman of high-souled purity, in the village of Kalpattu in the district of South Arcot, Tamil Nadu, on Tuesday, the 28th of November 1871. He was educated in three places: Thiruvidaimardur, Kumbakonam and Thiruvananthapuram. He passed the Matriculation Examination and took to the study of Sanskrit in right earnest. He studied under Bala Saraswati Bhatta Sri Narayana Sastrigal, an erudite scholar.

[Similar account in https://www.esamskriti.com/e/History/Great-Indian-Leaders/Lives-of-Indian-Saints-11.aspx , http://www.dattashramam.org/Guruparampara.html]

....

From http://www.learnkolam.net/2015/04/ava-dootha-swamigal-sri-dattatreya.html

Sri.Krishna moorthy(Sri.Swayamprakasa Swamygal's  poorvasira name)was born to Sri.Ramaswamy Sastrigal & smt Janaki on 28.11.1871,Tuesday as a 4th son.He had 3 elder brothers & 2 sisters . Their village name is "Kalpattu" around 11 kms from Thiruvennainallur( Where our Sundaramoorthy nayanmar was blessed by Lord.Shiva.).Ramasamy sastrigal was  an expert in Vedhas & Sastra.In those days , they  don't have permanent salary for teaching vedhas.Due to failure of rain, famine struck & Sastrigal  has to migrate to Aduthurai near Tiruvidaimarudur.Krishnamoorthy studied at a school in Tiruvidaimarudur.Later he studied in a high school at Kumbakonam.He learnt English there .He completed matriculation  at Tiruvanandapuram.As he felt sanskrit he has learnt in the school is not sufficient, he was in search of  a good Sanskrit scholar & with God's grace he got Sri.Narayana sastri as his Guru.He was en expert in Sanskrit,Veda sastra & advaitha    philosophy.He was also expert in some other  languages.He was also good orator.He was an  editor of  magazine called "brahmavidya" in which  he wrote  about  sanadhana dharma.Krishnamoorthy studied Sanskrit & sastras very well    &  got cleared all doubts that arose during his studies .Knowing his involvement in studies of sastras & his high level of obedience,The Guru taught him very well.He also studied Devaram,Thiruppugazh,Thayumanavar songs ,Thirukkural & Thiruvarutpa.It is said that a student acquires one fourth  of knowledge from his teacher,one fourth from his own effort,one forth  from students studying with him.Another one fourth in course of time.While his affection towards God & vairagya for leading  saintly life was growing,his parents wanted their son to get a GOVT.job.He was an  ardent admirer of Lord Nataraja.
--- end extract ---

Ravi: Perhaps the Sanskrit teacher in Tiruvananthapuram (Tirvanandapuram), Sri Narayana Sastri, is the same as TNS. Note that the above content states that Sri Narayana Sastri was editor of a magazine called "brahmavidya"!

=================================================

KERALA VARMA
AND HIS WORKS
by dr.poovattoor ramakrishna pillai [available on archive.org]


Page 23

He taught two biilliant pupils,
A R- Rajari»ja Varma (1863-1918), his nephew, and Turavur
Narayaija Sastri, with some other pupils.
---

Page 337
[Reference]
Narayana Sastri, ‘Sa$tipurtimangalam’ Vijnanacintamani,
dated 1-8-1080 M. E., Pattambi.

Page 342
[Reference]
Narayapa Sastri, Turavur 23
================================================

Small extract from KNOWING AND BEING: KUTIYATTAM AND ITS SEMANTIC UNIVERSE (In David Shulman & Heike Oberlin, Anguliyankam and Mantrankam, forthcoming)
Manu V. Devadevan

DRAFT PAPER. NOT TO BE CITED.

 https://www.academia.edu/29536350/Knowing_and_Being_-_Ku_t_iya_t_t_am_and_Its_Semantic_Universe.pdf

[From Page 6]

"The staging of plays involved elaborate practice and preparations. It is likely that performance was based on instructions carried in manuals meant for the purpose. Two such manuals are known from the early period, the Dhanañjayadhvani and the Samvaranadhvani. The two, however, are regarded as a single text. This is the epoch-making Dhanañjayasamvaranadhvanih, whose impact on the performance of Sanskrit drama in Kerala has been foundational. The Dhanañjayasamvaranadhvanih is better known today as the Vyangyavyakhya. We owe this name to T. Ganapati Sastri.[21] The text appears to have lived out its historical destiny quite early in time, for all that survives is a solitary manuscript.[22] This palm-leaf specimen in Malayalam script is preserved at the Thiruvananthapuram Palace Library.[23]

[References:
21 Paulose 2013: 67.
22 Heike Oberlin (personal communication) informs that another manuscript of the text is preserved in the private collection of Killimangalam Mana.
23 A transcript of this manuscript was prepared in Devanagari script on paper by Turavur Narayana Sastri in 1915. This copy is now held by the Oriental Manuscripts Library, Thiruvananthapuram.]"

...

The above draft seems to have got published in the final book titled:
Two Masterpieces of Kutiyattam
Mantrankam and Anguliyankam
Edited by David Shulman and Heike Oberlin
published by Oxford University Press, 11th September 2019.
https://global.oup.com/academic/product/two-masterpieces-of-kutiyattam-9780199483594

The Table of Contents, https://global.oup.com/academic/product/two-masterpieces-of-kutiyattam-9780199483594, lists the article with same title as in above mentioned draft, "16: Knowing and Being: Kutiyattam and Its Semantic Universe, Manu V. Devadevan".

Google Books Search Inside in this book for 'Turavur Narayana Sastri' lists a small part of the page having the name (it is not part of preview). Here's the link: https://books.google.co.in/books?id=RmmtDwAAQBAJ&dq=Two+Masterpieces+of+Kutiyattam&q=Turavur+Narayana+Sastri#v=snippet&q=Turavur%20Narayana%20Sastri&f=false

https://uni-tuebingen.de/en/faculties/faculty-of-humanities/departments/aoi/indology-and-comparative-religion/mitarbeiter/heike-oberlin-moser/ is the faculty page for Prof. Heike Oberlin (Moser) from "Institute for Indology and Comparative Religion", Tübingen University, Germany. She has published an online book in 2011 titled, "Bibliography of Kūṭiyāṭṭam" which can be viewed & downloaded from  https://www.academia.edu/26631385/Bibliography_of_K%C5%AB%E1%B9%ADiy%C4%81%E1%B9%AD%E1%B9%ADam.

Her above faculty page states, "From 1995 to 2001 she studied and performed Kūṭiyāṭṭam and Naṅṅyār-Kūttu with P.N. Girija and Painkulam Rama Chakyar at Kerala Kalamandalam in India. Since then she is also involved in studying and teaching the Malayalam language."
-------------------------

The ‘Early Medieval’ Origins of India
By Manu V. Devadevan
Cambridge University Press, published in May 2020
https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/early-medieval-origins-of-india/8E935BD91FEECD81CD48537B5A678BC7#


Google Books Search Inside in this book for 'Turavur Narayana Sastri' lists page 231 which is very similar to contents of above draft paper's reference to 'Turavur Narayana Sastri'. Link: https://books.google.co.in/books?id=exzhDwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+%E2%80%98Early+Medieval%E2%80%99+Origins+of+India+By+Manu+V.+Devadevan&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwir6uLcjcXpAhX2wTgGHVWWDzsQuwUILjAA#v=onepage&q=Turavur%20Narayana%20Sastri&f=false

The reference number has changed to 24 from 23. That seems to be the only difference. Pages 230 and 231 were viewable to me in above preview.

The chapter for page 231 seems to be titled, "Knowing and Being: The Semantic Universe of the Kūḍiyāṭṭaṃ Theatre" [Going by https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/early-medieval-origins-of-india/knowing-and-being-the-semantic-universe-of-the-kudiyattam-theatre/8021A2F525E540B4B7AE50A59F8F9241 as the chapter title page was not part of the Google Books preview for me].

The relevant text in Page 231 is: "This palm-leaf specimen in Malayalam script is preserved at the Thiruvananthapuram Palace Library.[24]"

The Reference section in Page 231 has the following entry: "24 A transcript of this manuscript was prepared in Devanagari script on paper by Turavur Narayana Sastri in 1915. This copy is now held by the Oriental Manuscripts Library, Thiruvananthapuram."

------------

Page 142 of Cracow Indological Studies, Theatrical and Ritual Boundaries in South Asia. Part I, VOL. XIX, No. 1, Edited by Elisa Ganser and Ewa Dębicka-Borek, KRAKÓW 2017, https://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/150340/1/29bddf3eca7aa95cc523668afca0b607.pdf, there is reference to Turavur Narayana Sastri in the same context but with some speculation about the transcription work.

This reference comes from a work of K.G. Paulose. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K._G._Paulose states, "K. G. Paulose is a Sanskrit scholar specialized in the dramaturgy of the Natya Shastra and Kooditaatam." Paulose was born in 1946.

The work of K.G. Paulose that is referred is: Vyangyavyakhya: The Aesthetics of Dhvani in Theatre. Hard Cover book: https://www.amazon.in/Vyangyavyakhya-Aesthetics-K-G-Paulose/dp/8124606994. The description in the amazon.in link says, "The doctrine of dhvani, expounded by Anandavardhana (ninth century ce) in Kashmir though contested by his contemporaries at home, received sound acclamation in Kerala. A royal dramatist Kulashekhara of the same century applied dhvani to the theatre. His performance text is known as Vyangyavyakhya (VV), meaning interpreting the implied. This was an epoch-making event in the history of Indian theatre. This innovation in performative practices marked a deviation from Bharata s national tradition and laid down the foundation for classical forms like Kutiyattam, Kgrshnanattam, Kathakali and Mohiniyattam."

The Sanskrit manuscript of Vyangyavyakya seems to have been transcribed by Turavur (Thuravoor) Narayana Sastri.

...

Art of theatre, https://www.thehindu.com/features/friday-review/theatre/art-of-theatre/article5170444.ece, 26th Sept. 2013, updated on 10th Oct. 2013, has the sub-title: "K.G. Paulose explains why Vyangyavyakhya: The Aesthetics of Dhvani in Theatre, a book on theatre edited by him, is important to understand theatre forms of Kerala."

It also has a pic of Paulose with the book.

The article covers how ‘Samvaranadhvani’ and ‘Dhananjayadhvani’ (drama manuals I think), together known as Vyangyavyakhya, were written in the 9th century as per Kulashakera (King/ruler, scholar and playwright) of Chera dynasty directions to a Brahmin writer.

But this article does not refer to TNS.

------------
Glimpses of Sanskrit Research: A Collection of Research Papers in Sanskrit and English

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=RetjAAAAMAAJ&q=Turavur+Narayana&dq=Turavur+Narayana&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwips5uF0bvpAhWRwzgGHWLeBEgQ6AEITDAE

Page 96: ..., Turavur Narayana Sastri were some eminent grammarians in the 19th century.

====================================

Is the book "Mārkaṇḍēya caritam" by "E Nārāyaṇa Śāstri", https://www.worldcat.org/title/markandeya-caritam/oclc/749999887,  published by "Calicut : L.S. Ramaier, 1910." and held in the British Library, St. Pancras, London that authored by my great-grandfather Narayana Sastri (TNS) with E being a wrong initial instead of R?

Other details of the book from the above link are as follows:
Language Note: Sanskrit songs and slokas in Malayalam script with translation into Malayalam.
Notes: Songs and ślōkas on the life of Mārkaṇḍēya, a young votary of Śiva.
Description: iv, 136 pages ; 18 cm
Responsibility: brahmaśrī E. Nārāyaṇa Śāstrikaḷāl mūlaślōkaṅṅaḷōṭum artha tātparyaṅkaḷōtuṃ bhaktirasamāya kīrttanaṅṅaḷōṭuṃkūṭi el̲utappeṭṭa[ta'.].
----

Given the above description, and that in my Internet searches I could not find an E. Narayana Sastri (Sastrikal) Sanskrit & Malayalam author who was active in 1910, I do think that there is a good possibility that the above book is by TNS. Also see note below about Narayana Sastri Ekasambekara.

[Note that there seems to have been an Narayana Sastri Ekasambekara active Sanskrit scholar-writer in 1890 who seems to have been associated with Anand Ashram, Pune, http://www.aanandashram-sanstha.org/. Here is a book edited by him titled "The Brahma Sûtrâs of Śrîmat Krishna Dwaipâyana: with the Bháshya of Śrímat Śankaráchárya and its commentary by Śrimat Ánandajnána, Part 2", published in 1890,  https://books.google.co.in/books/about/The_Brahma_S%C3%BBtr%C3%A2s_of_%C5%9Ar%C3%AEmat_Krishna.html?id=rdn7zAEACAAJ&redir_esc=y.
But he does not seem to be knowledgeable in Malayalam and nor does he seem to be referred to as Sastrikal. So I don't think the E. Narayana Sastri mentioned above is Narayana Sastri Ekasambekara who had published books edited by him through Anand Ashram Press, Pune.]
...

From https://archive.org/stream/IndiaOffice_CatalogueOfSanskritBooks/Nath%20and%20Chaudhuri_Catalogue%20India%20Office%20Sanskrit%20Books%20K-R_1953_djvu.txt

Markandeya : —

Candrasckhara-stotra [attributed]

Siva-stotra [attributed]

Markandcya-carita by Narayana Gastrin . . . E. Narayana Sastri-
kalal mula-slokahhalotum arttha tatparyannalotum bhaktirasamaya
klrttanahnalotum elutappettataya Markandeya caritam.

Malayalam char, pp. [1], iv, 136. 18x12 cm.

Vidya-vilasa Press : Calicut, 1910. 3419
----

A quick search for the book on Google did not list other matching entries besides the above. So the above book may be a rare copy which is mentioned on the Internet.

====================================

Book by another person from probably Tamil Nadu with same name R. Narayana Sastrigal as TNS but who is different, as he is from Radhamangalam and was associated as Sanskrit Professor of Vyakarana in Trivadi college (which seems to have been a college in Tamil Nadu).

https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.368470/page/n1/mode/2up

Nagesasaya Nirnaya Part I by Narayana Sastrigal

Publication date 1913
Topics RMSC
Collection digitallibraryindia; JaiGyan
Language Sanskrit

=======================================

This book does not seem to be by TNS

From https://www.worldcat.org/title/yatra-prasanga/oclc/254535238

Title: Yātrā-prasaṅga
Author: R Narayana Sastrigal
Publisher: Srirangam : Sri Vani Vilas Press, 1911.

As the publisher is from Srirangam, I think this would be the Radhamangalam Narayana Sastri of Tamil Nadu.

=====================

Age of Sankara by T.S. Narayana Sastry, first published in 1916, has a reference to "Bhattasri Narayana Sastri" which seems to be to another person who is said to have published a "Sankara Vijaya" book under the name, Madhava. This Bhattasri Narayana Sastri seems to have been based in Tamil Nadu (and was in Madras for at least some time).
=======================

Narayana Sastri Khiste is a different Sanskrit scholar from TNS. He seems to have been associated with Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office (Varanasi), https://chowkhambasanskritseries.com/about. Here is one book edited by him: Kavyaprakash by Mammata Charya: With a commentary called "Sudha Sagara" by Bhimasena Dikshita. Edited by Narayana sastri Khiste, https://books.google.co.in/books/about/Kavyaprakash_by_Mammata_Charya.html?id=lc3jMAAACAAJ&redir_esc=y published in 1924.
===========================

Note that a famous Kerala Sanskrit scholar of past centuries, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathri, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melpathur_Narayana_Bhattathiri, (author of famous Narayaneeyam in Sanskrit which is reported by his wiki page to be a summary of Bhagavata Purana, and many other Sanskrit works), is referred to as Narayana Bhatta. He lived from 1560 to 1646/1666.
=======================

Another famous Kerala Sanskrit scholar of past centuries is Narayana Panditacharya, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narayana_Panditacharya, who is also referred to as Narayana Pandita. He is the author of Madhwa Vijaya a biography of the great Madhavacharya of Dvaita school of philosophy. Narayana Pandita is the son of a direct disciple of Madhavacharya (1238 - 1317 CE). So Narayana Pandita would have most probably been active in the 1300s (14th century).
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Given below are some responses of mine over email:

Sai Ram sir! Thank you so much for the kind words. As I understand it, an important part of the mission of Bhagavan Sri Sathya Sai Baba, Kali Yuga Avatar, is to revive belief and reverence in Hindu Sastra and Sanathana Dharma. Through such posts of mine, I am trying to do my small contribution to add reverence and respect to those who have contributed to learning and teaching Hindu Sastra and Sanathana Dharma along with paying my respect as a great-grandson to my great grandfather Thuravoor Narayana Sastrigal. I am so happy that you have shared in my happiness on this matter, sir. Jai Sai Ram!

....

Note that the Sanskrit word Sastra means (Hindu) scripture, and Sastri or Sastrigal (when not used as simply a surname handed down to descendants) is a title indicating that the person (typically male) is knowledgeable about Hindu scripture and additionally, in most cases, is a teacher of it. Part of the social role & duty of Brahmin caste persons (which includes my great-grandfather and descendants including me) in ***past*** Hindu society (say from 100 years back to beginning of Hinduism which is going back many millennia) was to act as guardians of Hindu scripture and practice of Dharma, and also as transmitters of Hindu scripture & Dharma practice to future generations (as if future generations did not carry it forward, it would die). That Hindu scripture and Dharmic practices have survived for many millennia is, in part, a testimony to how the Brahmin caste people have dedicated themselves, across millennia, to this sacred task & duty allotted to them in the ***past*** Hindu caste based society.

Now in our early 21st century times, of course, Hinduism has evolved and moved away from such caste based roles. Any person, even a non Hindu, who is interested in Hindu Sastra can easily access it and even become a teacher of it. This includes many Western people, including a very interesting Australian white guy called Rami Sivan. Here's him conducting a vedic ritual as a Hindu priest (which is what I think my great-grandfather would have been doing quite regularly over a hundred years ago, in addition to being a scholar of Hindu scripture), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=if4yxv4z_PA. Rami Sivan also seems to be quite well read on Hindu scripture.

There are also Dalit (former suppressed classes in Hinduism) Hindu spiritual leaders and Dalit Hindu priests today which I think is a wonderful and great reformative accomplishment of modern day Hinduism.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

I am looking for help from Malayalam script readers to see if my great-grandfather name is mentioned in a history of Kerala literature book

Kerala Sahitya Charitram by Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulloor_S._Parameswara_Iyer, which seems to have been first published in 1960s (after death of Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer who died in 1949), has a history of Malayalam literature but also covers Kerala Sanskrit literature to some extent.

The book is in Malayalam script which I cannot read.

I was wondering if the name of my great-grandfather Thuravoor Narayana Sastri (Sastrigal/Sastrikal) who also seems to be known as Bhatta Narayana Sastri (Shastri) and whose life period seems to be roughly from 1860 to 1911, has been listed in this book in the context of some Sanskrit dramas that he is said to have written.

Note that the wiki page https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandalam_Kerala_Varma states "During this period, he (Pandalam Kerala Varma) along with Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer learnt grammar and rhetorical figures under the guidance of Thuravoor Narayana Shastri." So Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer learnt some possibly Sanskrit grammar and rhetorical figures under my great-grandfather (referred from now on as TNS).

Therefore I think there is a possibility that Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer may have mentioned TNS's name and mentioned the Sanskrit dramas that he had written, in the above mentioned book.

The pdf files for volumes 1 and 2 of the Kerala Sahitya Charitram book are available for download at:
http://books.sayahna.org/ml/pdf/ulloor-vol-1.pdf
http://books.sayahna.org/ml/pdf/ulloor-vol-2.pdf

Suggestions on how to search for name of TNS in these books
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I think an easy way to do so is to search for Narayana (in Malayalam script) in these pdfs, using the Find facility of the pdf reader program (including browsers like Chrome). Some results will surely be there as there are some great Kerala literature figures whose name has Narayana. E.g. a) Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri (also referred to as Narayana Bhatt), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melpathur_Narayana_Bhattathiri who lived from 1560 –1646/1666.
b) Narayana Pandita (of Kerala) This person seems to have been either a contemporary of Melpathur Narayana Bhatt or perhaps lived a little later.

If Thuravoor comes immediately before Narayana (Thuravoor Narayana)

OR

Sastri (or Shastri or Sastrikal or Sastrigal) comes immediately after Narayana (Narayana Sastri)

then such occurrences of Narayana are the ones that I would like to dig deep into.

I need the page numbers where they were found, the volume (1 or 2), and a copy-paste of the sentence in which they were found. That would become enough material for me to dig deeper.

If no occurrence of Thuravoor Narayana or Narayana Sastri are found in the two pdfs (volumes) then I think we can presume that the probability of TNS being mentioned (some form of his name) in the book is very low (close to zero).

Any help rendered would be greatly appreciated :-).

Thanks.

P.S. More about my great-grandfather can be seen in my blog post: https://ravisiyer.blogspot.com/2018/12/my-great-grandfather-thuravoor-narayana.html .

Sunday, May 10, 2020

Burst of 133 signatures on 8th & 9th May 2020, taking total signatures of our (change.org) petition (against Madhusudan Naidu spiritual fraud) to around 550

Given below are the contents of an update (slightly edited to fix typos) dated 10th May 2020 to our change.org petition - https://www.change.org/p/sathya-sai-devotee-fraternity-worldwide-we-condemn-spiritual-fraud-madhusudan-rao-naidu .

Burst of 133 signatures on 8th & 9th May 2020, taking total signatures of our petition to around 550



10 MAY 2020 —

Sai Ram brothers & sisters,

At around 11:20 PM Indian Standard Time on 10th May 2020, the total signatures on our petition are shown as 551. The petition has 2 or 3 test signatures and so we have close to 550 signatures on our petition.

I was surprised to see a burst of 133 signatures, all from India, on 8th and 9th May 2020. To put this burst in context, Dec. 2019 had 6 signatures, Jan. 2020 - 3, Feb. 2020 - 2, Mar. 2020 - 1, Apr. 2020 - 2 and from May 1st to May 7th 2020 we had no (0) signatures.

I don't know the reason for this burst of signatures. But this shows that people continue to see our petition and sign it, even though it is nearly one and a half years old (created in end Dec. 2018/early Jan. 2019).

The petition continues to retain top-ten Google search ranking for search terms like:
* Is Madhusudan Naidu subtle body of Sathya Sai Baba?
* Has Sathya Sai Baba spirit entered Madhusudan Naidu?
* Madhusudan Naidu Sathya Sai Baba
* Has Madhusudan Naidu become Sathya Sai Baba?

Thus the petition continues to be a vital source of correct information that is easily accessible on the Internet via Google search, about false claims made by Madhusudan Naidu spiritual fraud.

Was surprised to see a small "knowledge panel" on Google against my name - Ravi S. Iyer

Last updated on 10th May 2020

I thought I should inform readers that searching for my name with initial S (as Ravi S. Iyer or as ravi s iyer) on Google, shows a "knowledge panel" associated with me and my work.

But what is a Google knowledge panel? From https://support.google.com/knowledgepanel/answer/9163198?hl=en: "Knowledge panels are information boxes that appear on Google when you search for entities (people, places, organizations, things) that are in the Knowledge Graph. They are meant to help you get a quick snapshot of information on a topic based on Google’s understanding of available content on the web.

Knowledge panels are automatically generated, and information that appears in a knowledge panel comes from various sources across the web. In some cases, we may work with data partners who provide authoritative data on specific topics like movies or music, and combine that data with information from other open web sources."

A couple or so days ago, I initiated the process of "claiming" the knowledge panel which needed me to provide some info. to Google. I await a response from Google on that.

Note that just searching for Ravi Iyer shows many other Ravi Iyers (and does NOT list me). The Knowledge Panel shown then is for the musician Ravi Iyer (from Mumbai I think).

Given below is a screenshot showing knowledge panel on the right.

[To open pic in larger resolution, right-click on pic followed by open link (NOT image) in new tab/window. In new tab/window you may have to click on pic to zoom in.]



This development of Google 'knowledge panel' associated with my name, is a learning process for me. I think this indicates that Google is giving me some recognition as a small knowledge contributor on the Internet. I think adding my 3rd book to Google Books triggered this recognition (later I added my previous 2 books also to Google Books as previews).

I think this essentially puts more responsibility on me to continue to be truthful in my writings and to continue to be responsible in my writings on the Internet, all of which are freely accessible (no money charged and anybody on the Internet can view my blogs and download all 3 of my books for free). I pray to Bhagavan Sri Sathya Sai Baba to continue to help me as I continue playing this Internet based free service writer-contributor role.

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Am I falling into an ego trap because I put up a post on Google small 'knowledge panel' associated with my name?

Perhaps some readers think that I am getting caught up in an ego trap :-). If so, they are surely entitled to their views.

But my view of the matter is given below.

Well, if I were worried about such things then I would not have become a non-anonymous (public) writer as then one has to use one's name on one's public writings and be accountable for them. Note that before Bhagavan Sri Sathya Sai Baba Mahasamadhi in April 2011, I used to focus on my individual spiritual efforts, do my software technology related free Seva (as a spiritual offering), and share some of my spiritual stuff over email (content somewhat like my posts now) to few friends. I was quite content with that. A few months after Bhagavan Mahasamadhi, as the situation in Puttaparthi had changed enormously, I suspended my individual spiritual efforts and started my humble efforts of trying to contribute to the community through blogs, with two key blogs being written under a pseudonym.

A couple or so years into my blogs, it had become clear to me that writing under my own name would make the blog posts more accountable and so viewed more seriously by some readers. Some readers, including some very discerning readers, have some skepticism about anonymously written posts on the Internet, suspecting that it could have some hidden agenda due to which the author chooses to remain hidden.

I think around 2013 or 2014, I started writing blog posts under my own name and dropped using pseudonyms. I became active on Facebook around 2015 and did my posts & comments under my own name, thereby allowing myself to be held accountable for my writings, including controversial whistle-blower writings. Note that such accountability could also involve Indian courts of law, if somebody felt that my writings have broken some Indian law(s), specifically Indian defamation law(s).

I think it is my writing under my own name that lent crucial weight to my controversial whistle-blowing posts. I was ready to defend my views, if legally challenged, in an Indian court of law.  I think even my general (not whistle-blowing) spiritual writings and miscellaneous writings got viewed more seriously when I started writing under my own name.

Did I get caught up in an ego-trap as I did all this? I don't think so. Some of my writings had to be done using my own name, and so I did it not only for those writings but for all of my public writings. I know without a doubt that my reality is an eternal unchanging awareness, and that the mind-body complex called Ravi S. Iyer is like a dress worn over (or projected by) the unchanging awareness, and which mind-body complex is eventually going to disappear. The mind-body complex called Ravi S. Iyer is NOT my ultimate existential reality. My ultimate existential reality is my unchanging eternal awareness (consciousness).

There are many in Sathya Sai devotee circle who do not write publicly on independent platforms like social media but have contributed spiritual articles to some publications. In the past few years (after Mahasamadhi), I have tried, mostly in vain, to get some of them whom I know personally to write publicly on blogs. Perhaps some of them are held back by "ego trap" related concerns and criticisms, and so do not write articles on wider platforms like blogs.

I hope more people who have had great experiences of Sathya Sai physical form directly, and have had spiritual experiences in Sathya Sai organization & Sathya Sai devotee circles, are motivated to write about them publicly on the Internet as that is how posterity can have easy access to them. I am so glad that some Shirdi Sai devotees shared their experiences of Shirdi Sai Baba, with chroniclers of those days (including the famous post-Shirdi-Sai-Mahasamadhi chronicler of Shirdi Sai Baba, Shri B.V. Narasimhaswami, with key works of his now being freely downloadable on Internet - see https://archive.org/search.php?query=creator%3A%22Narasimha+Swamy%2Cb.v%22 ), due to which Shirdi Sai experiences other than what is mentioned in official Shirdi Sai trust works like Shirdi Sai Satcharitra, are easily accessible to people like me who are fascinated by Shirdi Sai Baba, besides Sathya Sai Baba.

And hopefully more such people who write about their experiences of Sathya Sai, and the Sathya Sai devotee community and its work, get recognized on the Internet by not only Google but perhaps by Wikipedia too, so that such experiences become more reputed accounts in the eyes of the world at large.

I think an important reality of these early 21st century times that we live in, is that the Internet is a very powerful medium for information sharing/knowledge sharing, perhaps the most powerful medium, and Google is an important gateway to that Internet medium. Recognition of an author and his/her works by Google, adds more weight to the works of the author.

Monday, April 20, 2020

--Name-snipping-- of some controversial stuff will be done on this blog

Thought I should inform readers that I have decided that it is time for me to delete all of my Facebook posts and comments of mine on them which mention by name, and are critical of, the vice-chancellor, registrar, director PSN campus and DMACS HOD of SSSIHL in the vital period of transition in SSSIHL after Mahasamadhi (end April 2011) till mid 2012 or so during which time there was a huge churn in SSSIHL. I have started the process of deletion of these Facebook posts & comments.

On this ravisiyer.blogspot.com blog, I intend to --name-snip-- the above mentioned names. I have done that for one or two crucial posts already and plan to continue that work over the next few days across all relevant posts on this blog.

Please do not comment on this post - I will delete any comments. This post is meant only for information and not for discussion.

Thanks.

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Wonderful to know that Sri Sathya Sai Central Trust donated N95 masks and other PPE were given to Anantapur Govt. Gen. Hospital medical and other staff by District Collector's office

Given below is an extract from "PPEs, masks distributed to GGH doctors, staff", https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-andhrapradesh/ppes-masks-distributed-to-ggh-doctors-staff/article31320876.ece, 12th April 2020.

Doctors, house surgeons and staff nurses along with other paramedical personnel, who had expressed concern over lack of personal protection equipment and N-95 masks, were handed over those materials by District Collector Gandham Chandrudu and Assistant Collector M. Jahnavi at the Government General Hospital here on Saturday.

All junior doctors and house surgeons resumed duties on Saturday. The protection equipemt (equipment) was handed over by the Sri Sathya Sai Central Trust to the District Collector on Friday. Mr. Chandrudu expressed gratitude at the gesture of the trust in supplying the materials worth Rs. 1.80 crore. “This will give immense boost to the confidence of personnel working in the care of COVID-19 patients,” the Collector added.

--- end extract from The Hindu article ---

Ravi: It is wonderful to know that the District Collector Shri Gandham Chandrudu and Asst. Collector M. Jahnavi used equipment donated by Sri Sathya Sai Central Trust for the vital needs of medical and other staff at the main COVID-19 isolation and treatment hospital - Government General Hospital, Anantapur - for whole of Anantapur district (which includes Puttaparthi).

Thanks to the District Collector & his office for good utilization of vital personal protection equipment donated by Sri Sathya Sai Central Trust to combat novel coronavirus/COVID-19 pandemic in Anantapur district.

The article also mentions that RDT trust's (a Christian mission well known in Anantapur district) hospital in Bathalapalli is treating COVID-19 patients. This article, https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-andhrapradesh/covid-19-tests-at-rdt-hospital-from-today/article31320878.ece, reports that the District Collector announced that COVID-19 testing facility has been started in the same Bathalapalli hospital.
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Update: Saw another version of the article with a pic of the PPE being distributed by District Collector and Asst. Collector to Anantapur Govt. Gen. Hospital staff. The related article link is: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/andhra-pradesh/ppes-masks-distributed-to-ggh-doctors-staff/article31319649.ece.

[I thank thehindu.com and have presumed that they will not have any objections to me sharing the above small extract from their website on this post which is freely viewable by all, and does not have any financial profit motive whatsoever.]

Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Miscellaneous Facebook posts & comments in March 2020

When author of post or comment is not mentioned, it should be assumed that it is me (Ravi S. Iyer).

To save time, I am usually not providing my FB post links but only contents. I am also not hyperlinking links. So readers will have to copy-paste links from this post onto a browser link box and then browse to that link.
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Interesting! Video is around 18 mins. https://www.facebook.com/SadhguruYogi1/videos/492531611567179/?t=0
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Good Seva for the needy in Puttaparthi.
[On the occasion of Dentists Day. We did a Free Dental camp at Sai Sanathana School, Puttaparthi]
FB post: https://www.facebook.com/ravi.s.iyer.7/posts/2778069315742961?__tn__=-R
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[Sathya Sai unveiling his own statue in Kulwant Hall!] https://www.facebook.com/uae123000/videos/10158351437998846/?t=0
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Enjoyed seeing this tweet of South African (former) cricket star Jonty Rhodes: https://twitter.com/JontyRhodes8/status/1235130798036209664, dated 4th March 2020

Text of tweet: "Benefits of cold water immersion in the Holy Ganges are both physical and spiritual #moksha #rishikesh #internationalyogfestival"
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Shared FB post: https://www.facebook.com/saimemories/posts/2910833572296530?__tn__=H-R
*SWAMI'S STATUE RE-INSTALLED IN BHAJAN HALL*
Way back in 2002, Swami had unveiled a life size statue of Himself, in Sai Kulwant hall Prasanthi Nilayam, on the sacred occasion of Guru Purnima on the morning of 24th July 2002.
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The article covers the views of Michel Danino, a writer about ancient Indian civilization who was awarded the Padma Shri by the Indian government, and has interesting tidbits about how he and his wife (whom he met in India) came to India in the seventies and settled down in India (in Tamil Nadu).

FB post: https://www.facebook.com/ravi.s.iyer.7/posts/2773206632895896?__tn__=-R
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Sunday, March 22, 2020

Sharing my satisfaction on seeing my 2014 & 2015 posts on criticism of fictional Rama statement by top Hinduism academic scholars, being listed in top ten results of Internet search engines

Today, 22nd March early morning, I checked out some search terms related to criticism of fictional Rama statement by Hinduism academic scholars, to see result ranking in search engines, of my blog posts:
a) Book having Baseless Criticism of Hindu Divine Figures Blocked from being Distributed in India, https://ravisiyer.blogspot.com/2014/02/book-having-baseless-criticism-of-hindu.html, created on 12th Feb. 2014 and last updated on 13th Mar. 2014. Screenshot pic of it is shown below.

[To open pic in larger resolution, right-click on pic followed by open link (NOT image) in new tab/window. In new tab/window you may have to click on pic to zoom in.]




b) Criticism of (non) Historicity of Rama content in Harvard Religion Prof. Diana Eck's 2012 book, India: A Sacred Geography, https://ravisiyer.blogspot.com/2015/01/criticism-of-harvard-religion-prof.html, created on 10th Jan. 2015 and last updated on 11th Jan. 2015. Screenshot given below:


Note that the (two) top Hinduism academic scholars referred in above posts and in search criteria below - Prof. Wendy Doniger and Prof. Diana Eck - are both based in USA.

Given below are screenshots followed by the Google search result ranks and search terms:


3rd rank (1st page) - criticism of fictional Rama statement by Hinduism academic scholars


7th rank (1st page) (2 screenshots) - criticism of fictional Rama statement by Prof. Wendy Doniger


4th rank (1st page) - criticism of fictional Rama statement by Prof. Diana Eck
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Given below are the Bing search result ranks and search terms:


4th rank (1st page) - criticism of fictional Rama statement by Hinduism academic scholars


4th rank (1st page) - criticism of fictional Rama statement by Prof. Wendy Doniger


1st rank (1st page) - criticism of fictional Rama statement by Prof. Diana Eck
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Given below are the DuckDuckGo search result ranks and search terms:

Not listed in top twenty results - criticism of fictional Rama statement by Hinduism academic scholars



9th rank (1st page) (2 screenshots) - criticism of fictional Rama statement by Prof. Wendy Doniger


1st rank (1st page) - criticism of fictional Rama statement by Prof. Diana Eck
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That is a small but satisfactory contribution from my side to fostering faith in Lord Rama, the Avatar who was an embodiment of nobility & character as a prince and king. In general, it is my small but satisfactory contribution to Hinduism religion discourse of our times. I wanted to share that satisfaction with readers.